INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT MEASURES OF POVERTY IN THE ESTIMATION OF THE ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES LOCATED IN MARINE PROTECTED AREAS: BARÚ COMMUNITY, BOLÍVAR
This study proposes a measurement for the adaptive capacity of local communities before external perturbations and its relationship with the presence of marine protected areas. This measurement is based on an Index of Adaptive Capacity, previously proposed, which is made up of three comprehensive and complementary dimensions that capture characteristics of the communities using indicators: i) socioeconomic, ii) institutional, and iii) social-ecological. One of the characteristics that most affect adaptive capacity of local communities is their poverty level; the decision about the measurement for poverty becomes therefore in a very important one. Two measurements widely used are the index of Unsatisfied Basic Needs (UBN) and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). UBN has been used in Colombia since 1978 and more recently MPI is being used and is gaining acceptance. In this study, this two approaches to poverty are included, estimated and evaluated in the estimation of the index of adaptive capacity. A survey including 264 households is carried out in the village of Barú (Bolívar, Colombia) from March to April, 2014. Results show that this community exhibits a moderate adaptive capacity and that poverty, dependence on natural resources and limited knowledge about natural environment are the most important constraints. Even though results using UBN and MPI are similar, the latter provides a more comprehensive view in the identification of factors associated with poverty and means to combat it; for this reason, it is recommended to include this approach in the measurement of adaptive capacity. Finally, understanding the dimensions of the index of adaptive capacity for the community of Barú allows the identification of elements that constraint or enhance its capabilities to face future disturbances, given the relationship with the National Natural Park Corales del Rosario y San Bernardo PNN CRSB.
Adaptive capacity; Indicators; Unsatisfied Basic Needs (UBN); Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI); Marine Protected Areas (MPA)
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