Influencia de las condiciones ambientales sobre la distribución y tipos de microplásticos en aguas superficiales en la bahía de Tumaco, Pacífico colombiano

Autores/as

  • Ingrid Arboleda Muñoz
  • Andrés Molina
  • Guillermo Duque

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25268/bimc.invemar.2024.53.1.1268

Palabras clave:

bahía de Tumaco, estuario, microplásticos, contaminación, épocas climáticas.

Resumen

Los microplásticos (MP) suponen una gran problemática ambiental para las zonas estuarinas, al estar expuestas a múltiples fuentes de desechos plásticos. En este estudio, se evaluó la influencia espacio-temporal de variables ambientales sobre la abundancia, distribución y tipos de MP en la bahía de Tumaco. Las muestras se recolectaron en épocas de lluvia y seca de 2020, en el estuario interno y
externo, y se procesaron mediante separación por densidad. La abundancia de MP fue mayor en época seca (11.40 ± 2.60 ítems/m³) y en el estuario interno (8.42 ± 4.91 ítems/m³). Las fibras fueron el tipo de MP más abundante (53.89 %). Se correlacionaron significativamente la
salinidad y solidos totales disueltos (TDS) con fibras, y la precipitación con fragmentos, láminas y MP totales. Estos resultados demuestran alta contaminación (8.13 ítems/m³) y un aumento de la concentración de MP en la bahía. Esto podría estar relacionado con la exposición a los residuos transportados por los ríos. Por otra parte, la mayor abundancia de MP en la época seca podría deberse a una disminución en la dispersión por una menor entrada de agua al sistema, y al aumento de la densidad del agua, relacionado con el incremento en la salinidad,
que favorece la flotabilidad de MP.

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Citas

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2024-01-01

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Arboleda Muñoz I, Molina A, Duque G. Influencia de las condiciones ambientales sobre la distribución y tipos de microplásticos en aguas superficiales en la bahía de Tumaco, Pacífico colombiano. Bol. Investig. Mar. Costeras [Internet]. 1 de enero de 2024 [citado 15 de julio de 2024];53(1):65-86. Disponible en: http://boletin.invemar.org.co:8085/ojs/index.php/boletin/article/view/1268
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