Variación espacio-temporal de larvas de peces en el golfo de Guayaquil, Ecuador

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25268/bimc.invemar.2020.49.1.778

Palabras clave:

ictioplancton, golfo de Guayaquil, variables hidrográficas, estuario, Ecuador

Resumen

Este estudio presenta la densidad, composición taxonómica, distribución espacial y temporal de larvas de peces en el golfo de Guayaquil, así como la relación con algunas variables físico-químicas. Se recolectaron muestras en 16 estaciones, tomadas en la primera milla náutica del estuario externo e interior del golfo, ubicadas frente a la provincia de Guayas y noroeste de la isla Puná, durante junio a diciembre de 2012. Se realizaron arrastres superficiales con una red cónica simple (ojo de malla: 300 μm; diámetro de boca: 0,3 m; largo: 1,2 m). La temperatura, salinidad y transparencia fueron medidas antes de cada arrastre. Se detectaron diferencias significativas entre zonas, registrando mayor temperatura, menor salinidad y transparencia en el estuario interior. Se colectaron 321 638 ind/100m3 de larvas de peces, pertenecientes a 13 familias y 36 especies entre la zona externa e interna. Engraulidae (58,9 %) fue la familia más abundante en las estaciones del estuario exterior, seguida de Sciaenidae (22,8 %) y Haemulidae (9,6 %). Las familias más frecuentes en el estuario interior fueron Engraulidae (74,4 %) y Gobiidae (16,1 %). El 85 % de la densidad total fue aportada por cinco especies, de las cuales Anchoa sp. y Bairdiella sp. fueron las más abundantes y dominantes, principalmente durante diciembre. La estructura y composición de la comunidad larvaria fue significativamente diferentes entre áreas (MW-U= 450; p < 0,05) y meses de muestreo (KW=14,24; p < 0,05), con mayores registros en el estuario exterior durante diciembre. Con el análisis de redundancia (ADR) se observa que, en el área externa, las especies estuvieron asociadas con la transparencia del agua, mientras que las especies que concurrieron en la zona interna se relacionaron positivamente con la salinidad. En términos generales, la abundancia y riqueza de larvas de peces en el área externa del golfo de Guayaquil está relacionada con las condiciones de transparencia y salinidad local, las cuales favorecieron a la presencia larval.

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Publicado

2020-07-16

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1.
Calderón-Peralta G, Ayora-Macias G, Solís-Coello P. Variación espacio-temporal de larvas de peces en el golfo de Guayaquil, Ecuador. Bol. Investig. Mar. Costeras [Internet]. 16 de julio de 2020 [citado 14 de agosto de 2022];49(1):135-56. Disponible en: http://boletin.invemar.org.co:8085/ojs/index.php/boletin/article/view/927

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